It is an empirical observation that people desire to have smooth consumption throughout their lifetimes. Lifecycle consumption hypothesis (LCH) and permanent income hypothesis (PIH) try to explain that in micro-founded framework. Both negate the Keynes assertion that average propensity to consume (APC) falls as income rises. Some micro-economic evidence is also broadly consistent with LCH and PIH, at least in advanced economies.
Salman Ahmed Shaikh
PhD Economics, National University of Malaysia. Author, Researcher, Teacher and Consultant. He can be contacted at: firstname.lastname@example.org
This article takes a brief look at the theory of the firm in Islamic economics and how a firm’s objectives and governing framework is different in Islamic economic framework as compared to the neoclassical and value-neutral economic framework.
Agency conflict arises when the various parties have different incentives or objectives in a mutual relationship. This article discusses Islamic economics perspective on the agency conflicts.
Islam allows wage differentials based on productivity differences, but does not allow discrimination. Furthermore, if wage differentials are because of characteristics that require equitable distribution and access to resources, then, Islam has unique mechanisms that ensure equitable distribution of resources and opportunities.
The question arises that if people are generally risk averse, are interest based investments and lending not the safest option to these people in which except from default risk, people are safe from fluctuations in payoffs and there is less uncertainty in payoffs. This article discusses how Islamic economic framework incorporates diversity in risk preferences.
Islamic injunctions put huge emphasis on making best use of the resources provided by Allah. Cultivating barren land and dignity of labor is given significant value and regarded as virtues. In an Islamic economic framework, the demand for economic resources, i.e. land, labor and capital is driven by the interest free and productive asset/activity based voluntary exchanges in a market economy.
Scarcity of resources is the basic premise on which the theories of classical and neoclassical economics are based upon. It implies that resources are scarce relatively as compared to the wants that are unlimited. But, this premise uses the word ‘wants’ in a general sense which includes both necessities and luxuries that people desire to have.
With higher levels of investment, circulation of wealth and competitive markets, innovation and quality enhancement will be the only means of sustaining the edge for firms in an Islamic economic framework. Hence, there will be more focus on innovation, customer satisfaction and hence speed of innovation and productivity is expected to increase. The supply side of innovation, which is the human capital, will also be incentivized through employment creation as a result of removing concentration and idleness of wealth.
Islamic finance industry assets are now worth more than $2.6 trillion by 2019. The industry has shown resilience and double digit growth even in the face of global economic slowdown. After substantial double digit growth in assets, customer base and profits, Islamic banks are expected to embrace the vision to provide an egalitarian financial system which is inclusive for all and avoid the pitfalls which the conventional banking based on interest could not avoid.
When we look at Islamic environmental ethics encapsulated in Islamic principles, we find that they compliment these SDGs and can act as a catalyst to foster commitment, responsibility and affirmative action for sustainable and congenial co-existence with environment.