Sources of Income Permissible In Islam
As per Islamic teachings, other than the explicitly identified impermissible sources of income, every other source of income is permissible in which the benefits are enjoyed by all the concerning parties on just basis.
Allah in Holy Quran says:
“Do not devour one another’s property wrongfully, nor throw it before the judges in order to devour a portion of other’s property sinfully and knowingly.” (Al-Baqarah: 188)
“Do not devour another’s property wrongfully – unless it be by trade based on mutual consent.” (Al-Nisa: 29)
Sources of Income Prohibited In Islam
a) Bribery (Al-Baqarah: 188).
b) Usurping others’ property (Al-Baqarah: 188).
c) Fraud (Al-Imran: 161).
d) Stealing and robbery (Al-Maida: 38).
e) Income from sources of vulgarity (Al-Noor: 19).
f) Gambling (Al-Maida: 90).
g) Wine and its business (Al-Maida: 90).
h) Interest (Al-Baqarah: 275).
Moral Directives of Islam in Conducting Business
Moral Conduct in Entrepreneurship
“And measure full when you measure. And weigh with an even balance. This is better and its end is good.” [Al-Bani-Israel: 35]
“They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom.” [Al-Tauba: 34]
“You resort to oaths as instruments of mutual deceit, so that a person might take greater advantage than another; although, Allah puts you to the test through this. Surely, on the Day of Resurrection, He will make clear the truth concerning the matters over which you differed.” [Al-Nahl: 92]
“Who so desires the reward of the world, then with Allah is the reward both of the world and of the Hereafter. And Allah is Hearing, Seeing.” [Al-Nisa:134]
“And that the man will not get, but what he endeavors. And that his endeavor shall soon be seen.” [An-Najm: 39-40]
“O Believers! Whenever you lend money for a particular period, write and someone among you must write it justly. And the one who can write must not refuse.” [Al-Baqara: 282]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Whosoever sells a defective product without disclosing its defect to the purchaser, shall earn the permanent anger of Almighty Allah and the angels continuously curse such a person.” [Ibn-e-Maja]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The seller and the buyer have the right to keep or return the goods as long as they have not parted or till they part; and if both the parties spoke the truth and described the defects and qualities [of the goods], then they would be blessed in their transaction, and if they told lies or hid something, then the blessings of their transaction would be lost.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has exhorted that we should refrain from taking oaths unnecessarily; for although, it helps in the sale of one’s products, it reduces the blessings. [Bukhari & Muslim]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “If anyone would like Allah to save him from the hardships of the Day of Resurrection, he should give more time to his debtor who is short of money, or remit his debt altogether.” [Muslim]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “May Allah’s mercy be on him who is lenient in his buying, selling, and in demanding back his money [or debts].” [Bukhari & Tirmidhi]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “A time will come upon the people when one will not care how one earns money, i.e. legally or illegally.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The flesh and body that is raised on unlawful sustenance shall not enter Paradise. Hell is more deserving to the flesh that grows on one’s body out of unlawful sustenance.” [Ahmad]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The truthful and trustworthy businessman will be in the company of Prophets, saints and martyrs on the Day of Judgment.” [Darimi & Tirmidhi]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “And what is most likely to send people to Paradise? Being conscious of Allah and good manners.” [Bukhari, Tirmidhi & Ahmed]
Islamic Teachings and Unethical Trade Practices
“Allah will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for deeds of charity.” [Al-Baqara: 276]
“Woe to those that deal in fraud. Those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure. But, when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due. Do they not think that they will be called to account?” [Al-Mutaffifin:1-4]
Keeping the commodities of general use in possession and not supplying them in the market for the sake of increasing the price is prohibited. [Ahmed-Bin-Hanbal]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “No one hoards but the traitors (i.e. the sinners).” [Abu Da’ud]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The importer [of an essential commodity] into the town will be fed [by Allah], and the hoarder will have [Allah’s] curse upon him.” [Ibn Majah]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Allah’s Messenger cursed the one who accepts interest and the one who pays, and the one who records it, and the two witnesses; and he said: They are all equal.” [Muslim]
The Apostle of Allah (pbuh) cursed the one who pays bribes and the one who takes bribes. [Abu Da’ud]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Do not harbor envy against one another; do not outbid one another [with a view to raising the price]; do not bear aversion against one another; do not bear enmity against one another; one of you should not enter into a transaction when the other has already entered into it; and be fellow brothers and true servants of Allah.” [Muslim]
Trying to buy commodities before they reach market is prohibited because market will decide the price. [Muslim]
Futures and Forward Trading: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “He who buys food grain should not sell it until he has taken possession of it.” [Muslim]
Analogical Deduction in Matters: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “What is lawful is evident and what is unlawful is evident, and in between them are the doubtful things which many people do not know. So he who guards against doubtful things keeps his religion and honor blameless, and he who indulges in doubtful things indulges in fact in unlawful things, just as a shepherd who pastures his animals round a preserve will soon pasture them in it. Beware, every king has a preserve, and the things Allah has declared unlawful are His preserves. Beware, in the body there is a piece of flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Benefits of Honest Conduct in Partnership
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has said that Almighty Allah proclaims: “I am a one third partner of a two man partnership until one of them acts dishonestly to his partner, and, in such an event, I then leave them.” [Abu Da’ud]
The importance of Paying One’s Liability
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “After the major sins which must be avoided, the greatest sin is that someone dies in a state of debt and leaves behind no asset to pay it off.” [Darimi]
Job Responsibility of Employee: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The honest treasurer who gives willingly what he is ordered to give, is one of the two charitable persons, (the second being the owner).” [Mishka’at]
Responsibility of Employer: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Give the labor his wage before his sweat dries.” [Ibn-e-Majah]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Those are your brothers [workers under you] who are around you; Allah has placed them under you. So, if anyone of you has someone under him, he should feed him out of what he himself eats, give him clothes like what he himself puts on, and do not put so much burden on him that he is not able to bear, [and if that be the case], then lend your help to him.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “I will be foe to three persons on the Last Day: one of them being the one who does not give dues to the servant he employs even after he has fulfilled his duty.” [Bukhari]
Justice and Honesty: Islamic View
“O believers! Stand firmly for justice, giving witness for Allah, may be therein your own loss, or of your parents or of your relations. Against whom you be a witness, he be a rich or be a poor, in any case Allah has more power than anyone over them, therefore follow not passion lest you may be far away from justice; and if you distort or turn your face, then Allah is aware of your doings.” [Al-Nisa: 135]
“O believers! Stand-up firmly by the Commandments of Allah, bearing witness with justice and let not the enmity of any people incite you that you should not do justice. Do justice that is nearer to piety and fear Allah, undoubtedly, Allah is aware of your doings.” [Al-Maida: 8]
Gender and Ethnic Discrimination: Islamic View
“O people! We created you from one man and one woman and made you divided in branches and tribes so that you may recognize one another. Undoubtedly, the most respected among you in the sight of Allah is the one who is more pious. Verily, Allah is knowing, Aware.” [Al-Hujurat: 13]
Directives of Islam to an Earning Individual
Encouragement for Welfare Spending
“…Remember, the example of those who spend in the way of Allah is like that of a grain, which sprouts into seven ears, producing a hundred grains in each ear. Allah [by His mercy] increases manifold [the rewards of such deeds] for whom He wills. And Indeed, Allah is extremely bountiful [in rewarding His servants], fully aware [of your circumstances and deeds].” [Al-Baqara: 261]
“Those needy ones who are wholly wrapped up in the cause of Allah, and who are hindered from moving about the earth in search of their livelihood especially deserve help. He who is unaware of their circumstances supposes them to be wealthy because of their dignified bearing, but you will know them by their countenance, although they do not go about begging people with importunity. And whatever wealth you will spend on helping them, Allah will know of it.” [Al-Baqara: 273]
“Look, you are being called upon to expend in Allah’s Way, yet some of you are being niggardly, whereas the one who is niggardly is, in fact, being niggardly only to himself. Allah is Self-Sufficient. It is you who are the needy. If you turn away, Allah will replace you by another people, and they will not be like you.” [Muhammad: 38]
“(O Prophet!) Tell those of My servants who believe that they should establish prayer and spend out of what We have provided them with, both secretly and openly, before there arrives the Day when there will be no bargaining, nor any mutual befriending.” [Ibrahim: 31]
“Have you seen him who belies the rewards and punishments of the Hereafter? He it is, who drives away the orphan and does not urge giving away the food to the poor.” (Al-Ma’un: 1 – 3)
“Those who blame Muslims who give charity willingly and laugh at those who get nothing but with their hard labor, Allah will punish them for their laughing and for them, is the painful.” [Al-Tauba: 79]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Spend, and do not count, lest Allah counts against you. Do not withhold your money, lest Allah withholds from you. Spend what you can.” [Bukhari & Muslim].
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The Lord’s commandment for every one of His slaves is, ‘Spend on others, and I will spend on you’.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Attitude of the Giver of Charity
“Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and do not follow up their spending by stressing their benevolence and causing hurt, will find their reward secure with their Lord. They have no cause for fear and grief. To speak a kind word and to forgive people’s faults is better than charity followed by hurt. Allah is All-Sufficient, All-Forbearing. Believers! Do not nullify your acts of charity by stressing your benevolence and causing hurt as does he who spends his wealth only to be seen by men and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. The example of his spending is that of a rock with a thin coating of earth upon it. When a heavy rain smites it, the earth is washed away, leaving the rock bare. Such people derive no gain from their acts of charity. Allah does not set the deniers of the Truth on the right way.” [Al-Baqara: 262 – 264]
Islamic View on Unscrupulous Consumption
“Give to the near of kin his due, and also to the needy and the wayfarers. Do not squander your wealth wastefully; for those who squander wastefully are Satan’s brothers, and Satan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.” [Al-Bani-Israel: 26 – 27]
“Do not keep your hand fastened to your neck nor outspread it, altogether widespread, for you will be left sitting rebuked, destitute.” [Al-Bani-Israel: 29]
“Those people, who when they spend, are neither extravagant nor miserly but keep the golden mean between the two (extremes).” [Al-Furqan: 67]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “When you eat, drink, give charity and wear clothes, let no extravagance or pride be mixed up with what you do.” [Ibn Maja & Nasai]
Stinginess and Wealth Accumulation: Islamic View
“Those who do not spend their wealth that has been given to them by Allah must not think that it is good for them; indeed it is bad for them.” (Al-Imran: 180)
“… Allah does not love the arrogant and the boastful, who are niggardly and bid others to be niggardly and conceal the bounty which Allah has bestowed upon them. We have kept in readiness a humiliating chastisement for such deniers (of Allah’s bounty).” [Al-Nisa: 36-37]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Avoid doing injustice to others, for on the Day of Judgment, it will turn into manifold darkness, and safeguard yourself against miserliness, for it ruined those who were before you. It incited them to murder and treating the unlawful as lawful.” [Muslim]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “There are two habits which are never present together in a believer, i.e. miserliness and bad manners.” [Tirmidhi]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “When someone is made rich but he does not pay Zakat for his wealth, then on the Day of Judgment his money will be turned into a poisonous snake with two black spots on its head. It will coil around his neck and bite his cheeks and say: ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure’. Then the Prophet recited verse Al Imran: 180.” [Bukhari]
“Say your prayers (Namaaz) and pay Zakat.” [Al-Muzammil: 20]
“Establish prayer and dispense the purifying alms (Zakat) and bow in worship with those who bow.” [Al-Baqara: 43]
Entrepreneurship Versus Dependency
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The upper hand is better than the lower hand (i.e. he who gives in charity is better than him who takes it). One should start giving first to his dependents. And the best object of charity is that which is given by a wealthy person (from the money which is left after his expenses).” [Bukhari]
Social Responsibility: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “If any Muslim plants something or sows seed from which a man, a bird or an animal eats, it counts as a charity for him.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Communal Development: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The best charity is that which is practiced by a wealthy person. And start giving first to your dependents.” [Bukhari]
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “To give something to a poor man brings one reward, while giving the same to a needy relation brings two: one for charity and the other for respecting the family ties.” [Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Nasai & Tirmidhi]
Utility and Satisfaction: Islamic View
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Wealth is not in having vast riches, it is in contentment.” [Bukhari & Muslim]
Islamic Texts on Consumption Behaviour
Descriptive Postulates about Human Nature
Qur’an mentions that humans are generally hasty (Al-Isra: 11), miserly (Al-Isra: 100), impatient (Al-Ma’arij: 19) and have love of wealth (Al-Aadiyat: 8). Thus, humans have impatience, positive time preference, tendency to economize on expending and desire for material resources.
Islamic texts recognize consumption externalities and desire to consume positional goods and indulging in conspicuous consumption (Al-Takaathur: 1-2). According to Islamic texts, human instinct prefers goods which serve survival needs as well as other wants which serve non-survival needs (Aal’-Imran: 14). The story of Jews asking Moses (pbuh) for variety of food (Al-Baqarah: 61) also hints at the desire for variety in consumption bundles and diminishing marginal utility.
In a hadith, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “If Adam’s son had a valley full of gold, he would like to have two valleys, for nothing fills his mouth except dust (of the grave)…” This also hints at the instinctive desire of humans for non-satiated preferences. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “The heart of an old man remains young with regards to two things: Love of life and wealth.” However, in next Sub-sections, we shall see how Islamic teachings prescribe guidelines for moderating these instincts and inculcating empathy in conduct and behaviour.
Moral Filtering on Seeking Endowments
In this Sub-section, we discuss how the Islamic teachings govern the pursuit of earning incomes. The Islamic teachings encourage striving for Halal means of earning as long as impermissible means and ways of earning are avoided, such as interest (Al-Baqarah: 276), bribery (Al-Baqarah: 188), fraud (Al-Mutaffifeen: 1-4), gambling (Al-Maida: 90), theft (Al-Maida: 38), business of intoxicants (Al-Maida: 90) and prostitution (Al-Nur:19), for instance. In general, barring the above exceptions, Qur’an allows mutually beneficial and consensual exchange (Al-Nisa: 29).
Islam discourages idleness, dependency and unnecessary exit from labor force. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “For one of you to go out early to gather firewood and carry it on his back so that he can give charity from it and be free of need from the people, is better for him than to ask a man who may give that to him or refuse. Indeed, the upper hand (giving) is more virtuous than the lower hand (receiving), and begin with (those who are) your dependants.” In another hadith, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) explained: “The upper hand is better than the lower hand, and the upper hand is the one that spends, and the lower hand is the one that asks.” Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said that begging is not lawful for the rich and physically fit except for the one who is severely poor or in perilous debt.
Divine Will on Endowment Inequality
According to Islamic teachings, this worldly life is a trial for humans in which they are being tested for their thankfulness and obedience to Allah (Al-Mulk: 2). In this test nature of life, Allah has given unequal endowments to humans so that they employ each other (Al-Isra: 30; Al-Ankabut: 62; Saba: 39; Ash-Shura: 12 and Az-Zukhruf: 32). The divine will on endowment inequality is also a means to test their thankfulness and patience.
Allah in Qur’an says that had it not been a very difficult trail for the believers, Allah will have made every house of the non-believer with gold and silver (Az-Zukhruf: 33-34). Thus, Qur’an asks Muslims: “And strain not your eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to various groups of them, the splendour of the life of this world that We may test them thereby. But the provision (good reward in the Hereafter) of your Lord is better and more lasting.” (Taha: 131).
Nevertheless, Islam does not approve extractive institutions such as Riba (usury) and public policies which result in concentration of wealth. Islam accords due importance to redistribution and reducing concentration of wealth in few hands (Al-Hashr: 7).
Moral Filtering on Consumption Set
Islamic teachings make a distinction between permissible and impermissible goods. Qur’an says “… Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth…” (Al-Baqarah: 168). Islam forbids intoxicants (Al-Baqarah: 219), meat of dead animals, blood and flesh of swine (Al-Baqarah: 173). In financial services, Islam forbids interest (Al-Baqarah: 276) and gambling (Al-Maida: 90), for instance. On some occasions, even the lawful goods become impermissible, such as during the time of fasting (Al-Baqarah: 183). Fasting in Islam is prescribed for Muslims to make them become God-fearing by restraining their desires and achieving moral consciousness. Nevertheless, Islam does not approve monasticism (Al-Hadid: 27).
Moderation in Consumption
Instead of being miser and spendthrift, Islam wants Muslims to have moderation in their consumption, both with respect to contemporaneous consumption as well as inter-temporal consumption. Allah in Qur’an says: “And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach (like a spendthrift), so that you become blameworthy and in severe poverty” (Al-Isra: 29). In another verse, Qur’an says: “And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” (Al-Furqan: 67). In a hadith, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Spend according to your means; and do not hoard, for Allah will withhold from you.” Islam expects Muslims to avoid being spendthrift and extravagant. Allah in Qur’an says: “… Waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not those who waste” (Al-Anam: 141). In another verse, Allah in Qur’an says: “…Spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift.” (Al-Isra: 26).
Avoiding Envy, Pride, Egoism & Boastfulness
Islamic principles recognize consumption externalities and counter them by explicitly cautioning against envy, egoism and pride. Instead of consuming positional goods and indulging in conspicuous consumption, Islam wants Muslims to observe humbleness and shun pride (Al-Isra: 37; Luqman 18). Qur’an says that Allah does not like prideful boasters (Al-Hadid: 23).
Islam also does not approve envious behaviour. Qur’an says: “The desire for piling up of worldly things diverts you until you reach the graves.” (Al-Takaathur: 1-2). Instead, Qur’an prescribes: “… Do not covet the bounties which God has bestowed more abundantly on some of you than others…” (Al-Nisa: 32).
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Envy consumes good deeds just as fire consumes wood, and charity extinguishes bad deeds just as water extinguishes fire.” Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) educated Muslims to be like none except the one who is given the knowledge of Qur’an and the one who spends in charity. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised: “Look at the one who is at a lower level than you, and do not look at the one who is above you, for that may keep you from scorning the blessings of Allah.”
Qur’an educates Muslims that wealth will not last forever (Al-Humazah: 1-3). Wealth and children are only a trial (Al-Taghabun: 15). The temporary nature of this worldly life and material dispensation is eloquently summed up by Qur’an as follows:
“Know that the life of this world is only play and amusement, pomp and mutual boasting among you, and rivalry in respect of wealth and children, as the likeness of vegetation after rain, thereof the growth is pleasing to the tiller; afterwards it dries up and you see it turning yellow; then it becomes straw…” (Al-Hadid: 20). In one hadith, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Richness is not in having many possessions, but richness is being content with oneself.”
Encouragement towards Pure Altruism
Islam does not recognize impure altruism to satisfy ego and to achieve fame and recognition (Al-Baqarah: 264; Al-Maoon: 6). Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised anonymity and secrecy in charitable giving such that the right hand does not know what the left hand is giving. Allah says of the ideal believers in Qur’an: “And they give food, in spite of their love for it to Miskin (poor), the orphan, and the captive. (Saying): ‘We feed you seeking Allah’s countenance only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you’.” (Al-Insaan: 8-9). Qur’an urges believers to spend what they love in order to achieve righteousness (Aal’-Imran: 92), spend throughout their lives (Al-Munafiqun: 10) and the ideal is to spend whatever is beyond their needs (Al-Baqarah: 219).
Qur’an urges Muslims to show kindness, generosity and benevolence to their fellow human beings. Allah says in Qur’an: “… Do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor), the neighbour who is near of kin, the neighbour who is a stranger, the companion by your side and the wayfarer (you meet) …” (Al-Nisa: 36). Qur’an says in another place: “So give to the kindred his due, and to Al-Miskin (the poor) and to the wayfarer…” (Ar-Rum: 38). Feeding orphans and poor is regarded as highly virtuous acts (Al-Balad: 12-16) in Qur’an. Qur’an exhorts Muslim to look after orphans and treat them with kindness and generosity (Al-Fajr: 17-20), work honestly in their property (Al-Baqarah: 220) and avoid oppressive treatment (Al-Dhuha: 9) as well as refrain from harsh behaviour (Al-Maoon: 2). Qur’an strictly prohibits usurping the endowments of orphans (Al-Nisa: 2).
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) declared that the best charity is to spend (in charity) while you are healthy, aspiring, hoping to survive, and fearing poverty, and not delaying until death comes to you”. Allah wants the believers to avoid miserliness (Al-Nisa: 37). Instead of enjoining miserliness, Islam urges Muslims to help one another in good acts and endeavours (Al-Maida: 2).
Since Islam only accepts pure altruism, it promises numerous incentives for it in its two-worldly view of life. Several verses in Qur’an promise due reward for pure altruism (Al-Tauba: 121; Fatir: 29; Al-Hadid: 7). In several other verses, spending in charitable ways for the sake of Allah is compared to a good loan which Allah will repay with manifold increase (Al-Hadid: 11; Al-Hadid 18; Al-Taghabun: 17; Al-Muzammil: 20). In several Ahadith also, Muslims are encouraged to spend so that Allah also spends on them with His blessings.
Leaving Familial & Philanthropic Bequests
Islam regards spending on one’s dependents as charity if done with the intention to please Allah. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said that the greatest reward for what you spend is on your spending on family. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “It is better for you to leave your inheritors wealthy than to leave them poor begging others…” In another hadith, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “As for one who is the guardian of an orphan who has wealth, then let him do business with it and not leave it until it becomes consumed by charity.” On the other hand, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) also allowed philanthropic bequests, but instructed that these bequests shall not exceed one-third of wealth.
 Al-Bukhari, Book of Ar-riqaq, Vol 8, Hadith No. 6436.
 Al-Muslim, Book of Zakat, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2410.
 Jamai-at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Zakah, Vol 2, Hadith No. 680. Also, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Zakah, Vol 2, Hadith No. 1470.
 Sunan Abu Daud, Book of Zakah, Vol 2, Hadith No. 1648.
 Jamai-at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Zakat, Vol 2, Hadith No. 653.
 Al-Muslim, Book of Zakah, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2378.
 Sunan Ibn-e-Maja, Chapters on Asceticism, Vol 5, Hadith No. 4210.
 Al-Bukhari, Book of Virtues of the Qur’an, Vol 6, Hadith No. 5025. Also in Al-Muslim, Book of Virtues, Vol 2, Hadith No. 1894.
 Al-Muslim, Book of Asceticism, Vol 7, Hadith No. 7430.
 Jamai-at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Zuhd, Vol 4, Hadith No. 2373.
 Al-Muslim, Book of Zakat, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2380.
 Sunan Abu Daud, Book of Wills, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2865. Also Sunan An Nisai, Book of Zakat, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2543.
 Al-Bukhari, Book of Commentary, Vol 6, Hadith No. 4684. Also in Al-Muslim, Book of Zakah, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2308. Also in Sunan Ibn-e-Maja, Chapters on Expiation, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2123.
 Al-Muslim, Book of Zakah, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2322. Also in Al-Bukhari, Book of Al-Maghazi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 4006. Also in Jamai-at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Righteousness, Vol 4, Hadith No. 1965.
 Al-Muslim, Book of Zakah, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2311. Also in Sunan Abu Daud, Book of Zakah, Vol 2, Hadith No. 1691.
 Al-Bukhari, Book of Al-Maghazi, Vol 5, Hadith No. 4409. Also in Al-Muslim, Book of Wills, Vol 4, Hadith No. 4215.
 Jamai-at-Tirmidhi, Chapters on Zakah, Vol 2, Hadith No. 641.
 Sunan Ibn-e-Maja, Chapters on Charity, Vol 3, Hadith No. 2396.
 Al-Bukhari, Book of Wills, Vol 4, Hadith No. 2742.