Islamic Worldview

Consistency of curiosity requires us to spend brief moments to read what Allah has himself said about existential questions in His last direct message on earth. The message invites thinking, reflection, introspection and summarizes the monotheistic worldview.

i) – Reflection on Nature, Ecology, Design, Complexity & Meaning

“In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of night and day; in the ships that sail the ocean bearing cargoes beneficial to man; in the water which God sends down from the sky and with which He revives the earth after its death, scattering over it all kinds of animals; in the courses of the winds, and in the clouds pressed into service between earth and sky, there are indeed signs for people who use their reason.” (Al-Baqarah: 164)

“It is He who made the sun radiate a brilliant light and the moon shed its lustre, and ordained for it stages so that you may learn to count out the years and [to make other such] reckoning of time. God has not created all these without a purpose. He makes plain His revelations to men of understanding. In the alternation of night and day, and in all that God has created in the heavens and the earth, there are signs for a God-fearing people. (Younus: 5-6)

“It is God who enables you to travel on land and sea. And when you are sailing on ships and rejoicing in the favourable wind, a storm arrives, and the waves surge upon those on board from every side and they think they are encompassed, then they make a fervent appeal to God, saying in all sincerity, ‘If You deliver us from this, we will surely be of the thankful.’ But when He has delivered them, they begin, wrongfully to commit excesses in the land. O you men, your excesses only affect your own selves. Have the enjoyment of the present life. Then to Us you shall return; and We will inform you of all that you have done. The life of the world is like the water which We send down from the sky, and which is absorbed by the plants of the earth, from which men and cattle eat. But when the earth has taken on its finest appearance, and looks beautiful, and its people think they have it under their control, then by day or by night, Our command comes to it and We convert it into a field of stubble, as if nothing had existed there the day before. Thus, We make plain Our revelations for those who reflect.” (Younus: 22-24)

“It is He who has made the night dark for you so that you may rest in it, and the day a source of light. Surely, there are signs in this for a people who listen.” (Younus: 67)

“There is not a living creature on the earth but it is for God to provide its sustenance. He knows its dwelling and its [final] resting place…” (Hud: 6)

“On the earth are diverse tracts, adjoining one another: vineyards and cornfields and groves of palm, the single and the clustered. Their fruits are nourished by the same water; yet We make the taste of some excel that of others. In this also are signs for people who understand.” (Al-Ra’D: 4)

“It was God who created the heavens and the earth. He sends down water from the sky with which He brings forth fruits for your sustenance; He has made ships subservient to you, so that they may sail across the sea by His command; and has subjected the rivers to you. He has also subjected to you the sun and the moon, both steadfastly pursuing their courses. He has subjected to you the night as well as the day; He has given you all that you asked of Him; and if you try to reckon up God’s favours, you will not be able to count them. Truly man is very unjust, very ungrateful.” (Ibrahim: 32-34)

“We have spread out the earth, and set upon it firm mountains and caused everything to grow in due proportion. We have provided therein a means of livelihood for you and for all those creatures for whom you do not provide.” (Al-Hijr: 19-20)

“He created the heavens and the earth for a true purpose. He is exalted above anything they associate with Him. He created man out of a [mere] drop of sperm: yet he shows himself to be openly contentious! He has created cattle for you: from them you derive food and clothing and numerous other benefits; how pleasant they look when you bring them home in the evenings and when you take them out to pasture in the mornings. They carry your loads to places which you could otherwise not reach without great hardship—surely, your Lord is compassionate and merciful.” (Al-Nahl: 3-8)

“God sends down water from the sky and with it revives the earth when it is dead. There is truly a sign in this for people who listen. There is also a lesson for you in cattle. From the contents of their bellies, from between the dung and blood, We give you pure milk to drink, pleasant for those who drink it. From the fruit of the date palm and the grapes, you derive intoxicants as well as wholesome food. Surely in this there is a sign for men of understanding. Your Lord inspired the bee, saying, ‘Make your homes in the mountains, in the trees, and also in the structures which men erect. Then feed on every kind of fruit, and follow the trodden paths of your Lord.’ From its belly comes a drink with different colours which provides healing for mankind. Indeed, in this there is a sign for people who give thought.” (Al-Nahl: 65-69)

“Do they not see the birds held poised in the vault of heaven? Nothing holds them up except God. Truly, there are signs in this for those who believe. God has made your houses places of rest for you and made tents for you out of cattle hides, which are light for you to carry, both when you are travelling and when you are staying in one place. He provides for you from the wool and fur and hair of cattle, household goods and articles for use for a time.” (Al-Nahl: 79-80)

“Your Lord is He who causes the ships to move onward for you across the sea, so that you may go in quest of His bounty: He is most merciful towards you. When danger threatens you at sea, you call upon Him, and forget all others you are used to invoke. But when He brings you safe to land, you turn away from Him. Man is ever ungrateful.” (Al-Isra: 66-67)

“It is He who has laid out the earth for you and traced routes in it and sent down water from the sky. We have brought forth every sort of plant with it, so eat and graze your cattle. In this, there are signs for men of understanding. From the earth, We have created you and We will return you to it, and from it We shall bring you forth a second time.” (Taha: 53-55)

“Do not those who deny the truth see that the heavens and the earth were joined together and that We then split them asunder? And that We have made every living thing out of water? Will they still not believe? We set firm mountains upon the earth lest it should sway under them, and We placed therein passages for paths so that they might find their way. We have made the heaven a well secured canopy; yet still they turn away from Our signs. It is He who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each gliding in its orbit.” (Al-Anbiya: 30-33)

“Then, We placed him as a drop of fluid in a safe place, then We developed that drop into a clinging form, and We developed that form into a lump of flesh, and We developed that lump into bones, and clothed the bones with flesh. Then We brought him into being as a new creation—glory be to God, the best of creators—after this you shall surely die. Then you will be raised up again on the Resurrection Day.” (Al-Mu’minun: 13-16)

“We sent down water from the sky in due measure and lodged it in the earth—but if We please, We have the power to take it away— We have produced palm-groves and vineyards for you, in which there are abundant fruits for you; and you eat these, also a tree growing on Mount Sinai which produces oil and a condiment for those who eat it. You have a lesson in livestock. We provide you with drink from what is in their bellies, and you have many other benefits from them; some of them you eat, and you ride on them as you do in ships.” (Al-Mu’minun: 18-22)

“He it is who has multiplied you on the earth and to Him you shall all be gathered: He is the One who gives life and causes death and He controls the alternation of night and day. Will you not then understand?” (Al-Mu’minun: 79-80)

“As for those who deny the truth, their works are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty traveller thinks it to be water, but when he comes near, he finds it to be nothing. He finds God there, who pays him his account in full. God is swift in His reckoning.”  (Al-Nur: 39)

“God created every creature from water. Some crawl upon their bellies, others walk on two legs, and others walk on four. God creates what He pleases. He has power over all things.” (Al-Nur: 45)

“Surely, whatever is in the heavens and on the earth belongs to God. God knows well what condition you are in. On the Day when they return to Him, He will declare to them all that they have done. God has full knowledge of all things.” (Al-Nur: 64)

“It is He who sends the winds as heralds of His mercy and We send down pure water from the sky, so that We may bring life to a dead land; and slake the thirst of Our creation; cattle and men, in great numbers.” (Al-Furqan: 48-49)

“Who created the heavens and the earth and sends down water for you from the sky, by which We make luxuriant gardens grow—you could never make such trees grow in them— is it another deity besides God? No indeed, but they are a people who equate others with Him. Who is it that made the earth a stable place to live in? Who made rivers flow through it? Who set mountains upon it and placed a barrier between the two seas? Is there another deity besides God? Indeed, most of them have no knowledge.” (Al-Naml: 60-61)

“Do they not see how God originates creation, then reproduces it? That surely is easy for God. Tell them, ‘Roam the earth and see how He originated creation. Then God will bring into being your second life. God has power over all things.” (Al-Ankabut: 19-20)

“He brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living. He gives life to the earth after its death, and you shall be raised to life in the same way.” (Al-Rum: 19)

“The two water reservoirs are not alike. The one is sweet, thirst quenching, and pleasant to drink from, while the other is salty and bitter. Yet from each you eat fresh fish and extract ornaments to wear, and in each you see the ships ploughing through the waves so that you may seek His bounty and so that you may feel thankful.” (Fatir: 12)

“Did you not see how God sent down water from the sky with which We bring forth fruit of diverse colours? In the mountains there are streaks of various shades of white and red, and jet-black rocks; in like manner, men, beasts, and cattle have their diverse hues too. Only those of His servants, who possess knowledge, fear God. God is almighty and most forgiving.” (Fatir: 27-28)

“It is God who has given you the earth for a resting place and the heavens for a canopy. He shaped you, formed you well, and provided you with good things. Such is God, your Lord, so glory be to Him, the Lord of the Universe. He is the Living One. There is no deity save Him. So pray to Him, making religion pure for Him [only]. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Universe!” (Ghafir: 64-65)

“It is God who provides livestock for you, some for riding and some for your food: you have other benefits in them too. You can reach any destination you wish on them: they carry you by land, as ships carry you on the sea. He shows you His signs; which then of the signs of God will you deny?” (Ghafir: 79-81)

“Among His signs is this: you see the earth dry and barren, but when We send down on it water, it stirs and swells: most surely He who gives it life is the giver of life to the dead; surely He has power over all things.” (Fussilat: 39)

“We shall show them Our signs in the universe and within themselves, until it becomes clear to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is the witness of all things? Yet they still doubt that they will ever meet their Lord. Surely, He encompasses all things.” (Fussilat: 53-54)

“Among His signs are the ships sailing like mountains on the sea. If He willed, He could bring the wind to a standstill and they would lie motionless on the surface of the sea—truly there are signs in this for anyone who is steadfast and grateful—” (Al-Shura: 32-33)

“His is all that the heavens and the earth contain. To God shall all things return.” (A’al-e-Imran: 109)

“The sun cannot overtake the moon, nor can the night outpace the day: each floats in [its own] orbit.” (Yaseen: 40)

“Do they not see that, among the things which Our hands have fashioned, We have created for them cattle of which they are the masters, We have subjected these to them, so that some may be used for riding and some for food? And they have (other) benefits from them, and they get (milk) to drink, will they not then be grateful?” (Yaseen: 71-73)

“Have they not observed the sky above them and marked how We have built it and adorned it, leaving no flaws in it; We spread out the earth and set upon it solid mountains and We brought forth from it all kinds of delightful plants, as a lesson and reminder for every human being who turns to God; and We have sent down from the sky blessed water with which We have brought forth gardens and grain to be harvested, and tall palm-trees with their thickly-clustered dates, as a provision for human beings; and by [all] this We bring dead land to life. Such shall be the Resurrection.” (Qaaf: 6-11)

“Do they not see the birds above them spreading and closing their wings? None save the Merciful sustains them. Surely, He observes all things.” (Al-Mulk: 19)

“From the rain clouds, We send waters pouring down in abundance, so that We may bring forth thereby grain and a variety of plants, and gardens dense with foliage.” (Al-Naba: 14-16)

“Say, ‘It is He who has scattered you on the earth; and it is to Him that you shall all be gathered [on the Day of Resurrection].’” (Al-Mulk: 24)

“… You will not find any flaw in the creation of the Gracious One. Then look once again: can you see any flaw? Then look again and again. Your gaze will come back to you confused and exhausted.” (Al-Mulk: 3-4)

“He causes the break of day, and has made the night for rest and He made the sun and the moon to a precise measure. That is the measure determined by the Almighty and the All Knowing. It is He who has set up for you the stars so that you might be guided by them in the midst of the darkness of land and sea. We have made the signs clear for people who want to understand.” (Ana’am: 96-97)

“It is He who sends down water from the sky. With it We produce vegetation of all kinds; out of green foliage, We produce clustered grain; and from the date-palm, out of its sheath, We produce bunches of dates hanging low. We produce vineyards and olive groves and pomegranates, alike yet different. Look at their fruit as He causes it to grow and ripen. In this are signs for people who believe.” (Ana’am: 99)

“There is not an animal that moves about on the earth, nor a bird that flies on its two wings, but are creatures like you. We have left out nothing in the Book—they shall all be gathered before their Lord.” (Al-Ana’am: 38)

“It is God who sends forth the winds as harbingers of His mercy, and when they have gathered up the heavy clouds, We drive them on to a dead land where We cause rain to fall, bringing out all kinds of fruit, just as We will raise the dead to life. Perhaps you will take heed. Vegetation comes out of good land in abundance by the will of its Lord, but out of bad land only scantily. Thus We explain Our signs in diverse ways for those who give thanks.” (Al-Ara’af: 57-58)

“[O Men!] Are you more difficult to create than the heaven which He has built, by raising its vault high and fashioning it flawlessly, and making its night dark and bringing forth its morning light, and the earth which He spread out, after that bringing forth from it its water and its pasture land, and making the mountains firm: [all this] as a means of sustenance for you and your animals?” (Al-Naziat: 27-33)

“Let man reflect on the food he eats. We let the rain pour down in torrents and then We cleaved the earth asunder. We make the grain grow out of it, and grape vines and vegetables, and olive trees and date palms and burgeoning enclosed gardens and fruits and fodder as provision for you and for your cattle to enjoy.” (Abas: 24-32)

“Do they never reflect on the camels and how they were created, and on the sky, how it is raised aloft, and on the mountains, how they are firmly set up, and on the earth, how it is spread out?” (Ghasiya: 17-20)

“Have We not spread the earth spaciously, and raised the mountains like supporting poles? We created you in pairs, and gave you repose in sleep, and the night as a cover, and made the day for earning a livelihood.” (Al-Naba: 6-11)

“He has laid out the earth for His creatures. On it are fruits and palm-trees with sheathed clusters [of dates], and grains with their husk and fragrant plants. Which of your Lord’s blessings would you deny?” (Al-Rehman: 10-13)

“Were they created out of nothing, or are they their own creators? Did they create the heavens and the earth? No! They have no faith.”  (Toor: 35-36)

“He has sovereignty over the heavens and the earth. All affairs will return to God. He causes the night to pass into the day and the day to pass into the night. And He knows all that is in the hearts of men.” (Al-Hadid: 5-6)

ii) – God is the One and Has No Partner

“All those you worship instead of Him are mere names you and your forefathers have invented, names for which God has sent down no authority: all power belongs to God alone, and He orders you to worship none but Him: this is the true faith, though most people do not realize it.” (Yousuf: 40)

“Have you not heard of him who argued with Ibrahim about his Lord because God had bestowed the kingdom upon him? Ibrahim said, ‘My Lord is the one who gives life and brings death.’ He answered, ‘I [too] give life and bring death!’ Ibrahim said, ‘God brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up yourself from the west.’ …” (Al-Baqarah: 258)

“In this way, We showed Ibrahim Our kingdom of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certainty of faith. When night descended on him, he saw a star. He said, ‘This is my Lord!’ Then when it set he said, ‘I do not love things that set.’ When he saw the moon rise and spread its light, he said, ‘This is my Lord.’ But when it set, he said, ‘If my Lord does not guide me, I will be one of the misguided people.’ Then, when he saw the sun shining, he said, ‘This is my Lord! This is the greatest of all!’ Then when it set, he said, ‘My people, I disown all that you worship besides God. I have set my face with singleminded devotion, towards Him who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not one of the polytheists.’” (Al-Ana’am: 75-79)

“He [Ibrahim] looked up at the stars. And said, ‘I am sick,’ so they turned their backs on him and went off. He turned to their gods and said, ‘Do you not eat? What is the matter with you that you do not speak?’ Then he turned on them, striking them down with his right hand. People came rushing towards him, but he said, ‘How can you worship things you carve with your own hands, when it is God who has created you and all your handiwork?’” (As-Saffat: 88-96)

“Before this, We gave Ibrahim his guidance. We knew him well. When he asked his father and his people, ‘What are these images to which you are so devoted?’ They replied, ‘We found our fathers worshipping them.’ Ibrahim said, ‘Indeed, you and your fathers have been clearly misguided.’ They said, ‘Have you brought us the truth or are you jesting?’ Ibrahim replied, ‘Your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, who created them, and I bear witness to that. By the Lord, I will devise a plan against your deities after you have gone away and turned your backs!’ He broke them all into pieces, except for the biggest one of them, so that they might return to it [for enquiry]. ‘Who has done this to our deities? He must be a wrongdoer.’ Some said, ‘We heard a young man, called Ibrahim, talking about them.’ They said, ‘Then bring him here in the sight of all the people, so that they may act as witnesses.’ They said, ‘Ibrahim, was it you who did this to our deities?’ He answered, ‘Rather this biggest one of them did it. Ask them, if they can speak.’ Then they turned to one another and said, ‘It is you yourselves who are in the wrong,’ then they hung their heads, and said, ‘O Ibrahim! You know they cannot speak.’ Ibrahim said, ‘So, do you worship something instead of God that can neither benefit you nor harm you?” (Al-Anbiya: 51-66)

“God is He who created you, then provides for you, then will cause you to die and then bring you back to life. Can any of your ‘partners’ do any one of these things? Glory be to Him and exalted be He above anything they associate with Him!” (Al-Rum: 40)

“People, here is an illustration. So listen carefully. Surely, those whom you invoke other than God cannot create even a fly, even if they were all to combine together to do it, and if a fly should snatch anything away from them, they cannot recover it from it. Both are indeed weak, the seeker and the sought.” (Al-Hajj: 73)

“God has not taken to Himself a son, nor is there any other deity besides Him; otherwise, each god would have walked away with what he had created. They would surely have tried to overcome one another. Glory be to God, above all that they ascribe to Him.” (Al-Mu’minun: 91)

“Those you call on besides God cannot create anything. They are themselves created. They are dead, not living; nor do they know when they will be raised to life. Your God is the One God. As for those who do not believe in the Hereafter, their hearts refuse to admit the truth and they are arrogant. God surely knows what they conceal and what they reveal. He does not love the arrogant.” (Al-Nahl: 20-23)

“Those whom you call on besides God are but creatures like yourselves. Call upon them, then, and let them respond to you, if what you say is true. Have they feet to walk with? Have they hands to hold with? Have they eyes to see with? Have they ears to hear with?…” (Al-Ara’af: 194-195)

“Those whom you call on besides Him have no power to help you, nor can they help themselves.’” (Al-Ara’af: 197)

“Say, ‘Have you thought about those you call upon apart from God? Show me what they have created on the earth. Or do they have a share in the heavens? Bring me a Book revealed before this or some other vestige of knowledge, if you are telling the truth.’ And who is more misguided than one who invokes, besides God, such as will not answer him until the Day of Resurrection, and who [in fact] are not even aware of his call.” (Al-Ahqaf: 4-5)

iii) – Origin of Human Life and its Purpose

“We have created you: why then do you not accept the truth? Have you thought about [the semen] that you discharge— did you create it or did We? It is We who have ordained death for all of you; and We cannot be prevented from replacing you by others like yourselves or changing your forms and re-creating you in forms that you know nothing of. You have certainly known the first creation. Why, then, do you not take heed? Have you thought about what crops you plant? Is it you who cause them to grow or do We? If We so pleased, We could turn your harvest into chaff. Then you would start lamenting, ‘We are ruined, nay, we are deprived [altogether].’ Have you considered the water that you drink? Is it you who cause it to descend from the clouds, or do We? If We so pleased, We certainly could make it salty. Why, then, are you not grateful?” (Al-Waqiya: 57-70)

“Say, ‘He is God, the One, God, the Self-sufficient One. He does not give birth, nor was He born, and there is nothing like Him.’” (Al-Ikhlas: 1-4)

“Blessed is He in whose hand is the Kingdom: He has power over all things; He created death and life so that He might test you, and find out which of you is best in conduct. He is the Mighty, the Most Forgiving One.” (Al-Mulk: 1-2)

“Most certainly We will try you until We have discovered those among you who strive their hardest, and those who are steadfast, and will test your record.” (Muhammad: 31)

“Every soul shall taste death; We test you with both good and bad [circumstances] as a trial. To Us you shall return.” (Al-Anbiya: 35)

“Say, ‘We believe in God and what was revealed to us; and what was revealed to Ibrahim, Ismael, Isaac, Jacob, and their descendants, and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the [other] prophets by their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them. It is to Him that we surrender ourselves.’” (Al-Baqarah: 136)

“And vie with one another for your Lord’s forgiveness and for a Paradise as vast as the heavens and the earth, which has been prepared for the God-fearing, for those who spend, both in prosperity and adversity, who restrain their anger and are forgiving towards their fellow men—God loves those who do good works.” (A’al-e-Imran: 133-134)

“Do not walk proudly on the earth. You cannot cleave the earth, nor can you rival the mountains in height.” (Al-Isra: 37)

“It was not in play that We created the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them.” (Al-Anbiya: 16)

“As for those who fear their Lord in the unseen will have forgiveness and a rich reward. Whether you speak in secret or aloud, He knows what is in every heart. How could He who created not know His own creation, when He alone is the Most Subtle in His wisdom and the All Aware? It is He who has made the earth subservient to you, so traverse its regions and eat its provisions. To Him you shall all be resurrected.” (Al-Mulk: 12-15)

“On the Day when every human being will find himself faced with all the good that he has done, and with all the evil that he has done, many will wish that there were a long space of time between himself and that [Day]. God admonishes you to fear Him, but God is compassionate towards His servants.” (A’al-e-Imran: 30)

“Do they not know that God knows all that they conceal and all that they disclose?” (Al-Baqarah: 77)

“Should We treat the true believers and the wrongdoers alike? What ails you? How ill you judge! Have you a Scripture that tells you that you will be granted whatever you choose? Or do you have Our solemn oaths, binding upon Us till the Day of Resurrection, that you shall have whatever you yourselves decide?” (Al-Qalam: 35-39)

“By the sun and its rising brightness and by the moon as it follows it, and by the day as it reveals its glory and by the night when it draws a veil over it, by the sky and how He built it and by the earth and how He spread it, by the soul and how He formed it, then inspired it to understand what was right and wrong for it. He who purifies it will indeed be successful, and he who corrupts it is sure to fail.” (Al-Shams: 1-10)

“Read! In the name of your Lord, who created: created man from a clot [of blood]. Read! Your Lord is the Most Bountiful One who taught by the pen, taught man what he did not know. Yet man behaves arrogantly, because he thinks himself self-sufficient: truly, all will return to your Lord.” (Al-Alaq: 1-8)

“[On the Day of Resurrection], Whoever has done the smallest particle of good will see it; while whoever has done the smallest particle of evil will see it.” (Al-Zalzalah: 7-8)